Systemic risks

Risks arising from the breakdown of the entire system, rather than the failure of individual parts. They are characterised by modest tipping points combining indirectly to produce large failures with cascading of interactions of physical and transition risks (contagion), as one loss triggers a chain of others, and with systems unable to recover equilibrium after a shock. An example is the loss of a keystone species, such as sea otters, which have a critical role in ecosystem community structure. When sea otters were hunted to near extinction in the 1900s, the coastal ecosystems flipped, and biomass production was greatly reduced.

Source: ESRS E4 Biodiversity and ecosystems